If you build a web site and want to make it accessible on the Web, you have to put your web site on a computer that has a special software call a Web Server that communicates with other computers on the internet to access files. This computer has to have a dedicated static IP address and should be on 24/7.
A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their own website accessible via the World Wide Web.Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own or lease for use by their clients as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. Web hosts can also provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for servers they do not own to be located in their data center, called colocation.
The Web host stores all the pages of your website and makes them available to computers connected to the Internet,can have anywhere from one to several thousand computers that run Web hosting software, such as Apache, OS X Server, or Windows Server. The domain name, such as “swissen.in,” is actually linked to an IP address that points to a specific computer. When somebody enters your domain name into their browser’s address field, the IP address is located and Web site is loaded from your Web host Most websites you see on the Web are accessed from a “shared host,” which is a single computer that can host several hundred Web sites. Larger websites often use a “dedicated host,” which is a single machine that hosts only one website..
- Web Hosting : The web server offers uninterrupted Internet connectivity, a certain set of software packages, which offer additional services such as e-mail, ftp, databases, as well as an environment for utilizing different programming languages such as: perl, php, java, xhtml, html and others.
- File Hosting: File hosting is same to web hosting. The difference is that the server stores files, not websites and web applications. Some of the advantages of file hosting are the safe storage of information and its accessibility across the Internet all the computers with adequate transfer speed can take advantage of. It is most often used for storing and archiving large chunks of data so that they are accessible from different parts of the world. Big corporations consisting of many branches often resort to file hosting, for example.
- Image Hosting: Image hosting is a specialized file hosting service whereby only image files are being stored on the server. This allows for easy and unrestricted sharing of images, graphics and other materials, which can be conveniently used for example on various online forums, ecommerce platforms, etc, which usually disallow the uploading of images and photos of very large size and resolution for the purpose of decreasing bandwidth.
- E-Mail Hosting : E-mail hosting is a type of hosting specialized in offering electronic mail services. This type of hosting is usually offered together with web hosting or at least with domain hosting, and allows for the creation of an e-mail address of the firstname.lastname@example.org type. The clients of the e-mail hosting service also get large size mailboxes and the possibility to send many e-mails every day. Most e-mail service providers offer access to the mailbox not only via a web interface, but also via POP3 and IMAP protocols, which renders the service accessible via both a web browser and specialized e-mail client software.
Depending on the quantity of the server resources your website is allowed to use, and how many user accounts a given server hosts, hosting can be divided into:
- Shared web hosting: Shared hosting is the most popular form of web hosting. It is called “shared” because many different web applications (most often websites) are stored on one single physical server and thus share its resources. A separate account with specific parameters (disk space, traffic, number of databases, etc) and a web-based account administration control panel is assigned to each user. The account is administered entirely by the user via a web-based interface control panel, which gives even the beginners quick access and full control over their accounts. Because of the very nature of the shared web hosting service, it is suitable for smaller and not too heavily loaded websites.
- Semi-dedicated hosting: Semi-dedicated hosting is a type of hosting service, which is closer to “shared” than is to “dedicated” hosting, whereby the server is configured so as to host less but more heavily loaded websites in terms of bandwidth. As with the shared hosting service, the users too have separate accounts but their parameters are many times larger than those offered by the shared hosting service.
- Dedicated hosting: In contrast to shared hosting, dedicated hosting implies that clients’ applications do not share the server’s resources with other users’ applications. Besides, the server uses the entire available bandwidth for purposes of its own. Thus, a given application uses the entire hardware resources of the server on which it is located, the system settings are wholly consistent with and optimized according to its needs, and last but not least – the user has full control over the server. The most commonly installed operation systems are Linux, FreeBSD and Windows. This type of hosting is intended for websites and web applications, which generate substantial hardware load, unthinkable for the resources that shared hosting offers. Dedicated hosting is usually recommended as a solution for sites that register more than 15000 visits a day, for big online shops and portals, popular online games, etc.
- Virtual server: Virtual server is a notion, which stands somewhere between “shared” and “dedicated” hosting. Here, one physical server is divided into several independent virtual servers. Essentially, each such virtual server can be looked upon as being “dedicated”, because a separate operation system is being installed on it according to the user’s needs, which takes up the applications of one given client only. The most commonly used pieces of server virtualization software are VMware, FreeVPS, User-mode Linux, Virtuozzo, etc. The settings of the server are optimized to work with each of them and the resources it can use are much more than those offered by shared hosting. Recommended for websites and applications, which require specific operation system settings, and which generate substantial server load.
Types of hosting
- Free web hosting service: offered by different companies with limited services, sometimes supported by advertisements, and often limited when compared to paid hosting.
- Shared web hosting service: one’s website is placed on the same server as many other sites, ranging from a few to hundreds or thousands. Typically, all domains may share a common pool of server resources, such as RAM and the CPU. The features available with this type of service can be quite extensive. A shared web may be hosted with a reseller.
- Reseller web hosting: allows clients to become web hosts themselves. Resellers could function, for individual domains, under any combination of these listed types of hosting, depending on who they are affiliated with as a reseller. Resellers’ accounts may vary tremendously in size: they may have their own virtual dedicated server to a colocated server. Many resellers provide a nearly identical service to their provider’s shared hosting plan and provide the technical support themselves.
- Virtual Dedicated Server: also known as a Virtual Private Server (VPS), divides server resources into virtual servers, where resources can be allocated in a way that does not directly reflect the underlying hardware. VPS will often be allocated resources based on a one server to many VPSs relationship, however virtualisation may be done for a number of reasons, including the ability to move a VPS container between servers. The users may have root access to their own virtual space. Customers are sometimes responsible for patching and maintaining the server.
- Dedicated hosting service: the user gets his or her own Web server and gains full control over it (user has root access for Linux/administrator access for Windows); however, the user typically does not own the server. Another type of Dedicated hosting is Self-Managed or Unmanaged. This is usually the least expensive for Dedicated plans. The user has full administrative access to the server, which means the client is responsible for the security and maintenance of his own dedicated server.
- Managed hosting service: the user gets his or her own Web server but is not allowed full control over it (user is denied root access for Linux/administrator access for Windows); however, they are allowed to manage their data via FTP or other remote management tools. The user is disallowed full control so that the provider can guarantee quality of service by not allowing the user to modify the server or potentially create configuration problems. The user typically does not own the server. The server is leased to the client.
- Colocation web hosting service: similar to the dedicated web hosting service, but the user owns the colo server; the hosting company provides physical space that the server takes up and takes care of the server. This is the most powerful and expensive type of web hosting service. In most cases, the colocation provider may provide little to no support directly for their client’s machine, providing only the electrical, Internet access, and storage facilities for the server. In most cases for colo, the client would have his own administrator visit the data center on site to do any hardware upgrades or changes.
- Cloud hosting: is a new type of hosting platform that allows customers powerful, scalable and reliable hosting based on clustered load-balanced servers and utility billing. A cloud hosted website may be more reliable than alternatives since other computers in the cloud can compensate when a single piece of hardware goes down. Also, local power disruptions or even natural disasters are less problematic for cloud hosted sites, as cloud hosting is decentralized. Cloud hosting also allows providers to charge users only for resources consumed by the user, rather than a flat fee for the amount the user expects they will use, or a fixed cost upfront hardware investment. Alternatively, the lack of centralization may give users less control on where their data is located which could be a problem for users with data security or privacy concerns.
- Clustered hosting: having multiple servers hosting the same content for better resource utilization. Clustered Servers are a perfect solution for high-availability dedicated hosting, or creating a scalable web hosting solution. A cluster may separate web serving from database hosting capability. (Usually Web hosts use Clustered Hosting for their Shared hosting plans, as there are multiple benefits to the mass managing of clients).
- Grid hosting: this form of distributed hosting is when a server cluster acts like a grid and is composed of multiple nodes.
- Home server: usually a single machine placed in a private residence can be used to host one or more web sites from a usually consumer-grade broadband connection.Some ISPs actively attempt to block home servers by disallowing incoming requests to TCP port 80 of the user’s connection and by refusing to provide static IP addresses. A common way to attain a reliable DNS host name is by creating an account with a dynamic DNS service. A dynamic DNS service will automatically change the IP address that a URL points to when the IP address changes.